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Metabolism refers to the biochemical processes that occur in the body to convert food and other substances into energy and other essential molecules. It involves a series of chemical reactions that take place within cells to break down nutrients, release energy, and synthesize new molecules.
The metabolic process is divided into two main categories:
Catabolism: This involves the breakdown of complex molecules, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into simpler molecules, which releases energy that can be used by the body.
Anabolism: This involves the synthesis of complex molecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and glycogen, from simpler molecules. This process requires energy and is important for the growth and repair of tissues in the body.
Metabolism is controlled by a variety of hormones and enzymes that regulate the rate of biochemical reactions in the body. The rate of metabolism can be influenced by a number of factors, including age, sex, genetics, body composition, and physical activity level.
The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy required to maintain basic bodily functions, such as breathing, circulation, and temperature regulation. BMR can be influenced by factors such as muscle mass, body size, and hormones.
A person’s metabolism can also be influenced by external factors, such as diet and exercise. For example, eating a diet that is high in protein and low in carbohydrates can increase metabolism, while consuming excess calories can slow down metabolism and contribute to weight gain.
In summary, metabolism is a complex set of biochemical processes that are responsible for breaking down nutrients, releasing energy, and synthesizing new molecules in the body. It is influenced by a variety of internal and external factors and plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.