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Antihistamine is a type of medication that is used to treat allergic reactions by blocking the action of histamine, a chemical produced by the body in response to allergens. Histamine is responsible for many symptoms of an allergic reaction, including itching, swelling, and inflammation.
Antihistamines work by binding to the histamine receptors in the body and preventing the histamine from producing its effects. This can reduce or eliminate symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes, and hives.
There are two main types of antihistamine: first-generation and second-generation. First-generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), tend to cause drowsiness and can have other side effects, such as dry mouth and blurred vision. Second-generation antihistamines, such as loratadine (Claritin) and cetirizine (Zyrtec), are less likely to cause drowsiness and have fewer side effects.
Antihistamines can be taken orally in the form of tablets, capsules, or liquid, and some are available as nasal sprays or eye drops for more targeted relief of allergy symptoms. While antihistamines can be effective at treating allergic reactions, they are not a cure for allergies and do not prevent future allergic reactions. They should be used as directed and under the guidance of a healthcare provider.