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Seed germination is the process by which a seed begins to grow into a new plant. It occurs when a seed is provided with the right conditions of moisture, warmth, and oxygen that trigger the seed to begin to grow.
During germination, the seed absorbs water and swells, causing the protective seed coat to split open. This allows the seedling to emerge from the seed and begin to grow. The first structure to emerge from the seed is the radicle, which is the embryonic root of the plant. The radicle begins to grow downwards into the soil to anchor the seedling and absorb water and nutrients.
Next, the shoot emerges from the seed and grows upwards towards the light. The shoot contains the embryonic stem and leaves of the plant. The leaves are the primary site of photosynthesis, where the plant produces energy from sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water.
As the seedling continues to grow, it develops more roots, leaves, and stems. The roots help to anchor the plant in the soil and absorb water and nutrients, while the leaves and stems help to capture sunlight for photosynthesis and transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.
The process of seed germination is critical for plant reproduction and survival. It allows plants to grow and produce new offspring, which helps to ensure the continued survival of the species. The conditions required for seed germination can vary depending on the species of plant, but generally involve a combination of moisture, warmth, and oxygen.